The Lofdal property is underlain by ancient (2 billion year old) metamorphic rocks of the Huab Metamorphic Complex surrounded by younger (750 million year old) sedimentary rocks of the Damaran Orogen. The carbonatite complex was intruded into the metamorphic rocks around 760 million years ago and comprises a central core characterized by a number of plugs of nepheline syenite and carbonatite with associated breccias, surrounded by a wide area of dyking and associated hydrothermal alteration. The carbonatite dykes are widely mineralized with rare earth elements and the total area affected is more than 200 kmē.
Rare earth element mineralization at Lofdal is closely associated with the carbonatite dykes and related hydrothermal alteration. Of particular significance and exploration interest is the frequent enrichment of heavy rare earths in these mineralized zones. Geologists believe that the heavy rare earth-rich mineralization is dominantly a hydrothermal event, that occurred relatively late in the history of the complex. Mineralogically, the heavy rare earth-enriched mineralization is dominated by xenotime.
Examples of carbonatites from Lofdal. Over 4,000 samples have been collected from outcrops of dykes and plugs.